SEE ONE: WHAT
In this unit you will be introduced to educational videos and flipped classroom as a learning method, activating and enhancing learning experiences and the autonomy of the students. Videos are especially suitable for implementing flipped classroom as a method, and therefore is flipped classroom the most well-known pedagogical method associated with educational videos.
See One – Knowledge about using video in teaching
- About using video for educational purposes
- Introduction to different types of educational videos
- Flipped classroom as a pedagogical method
- Copyright questions
- Creative Commons
- To read the material on educational video and flipped classroom
- Reflections on how you could start using video or expand the use of video in your own teaching
- Write down your reflections in your learning journal
- You will be familiar with theories on using video in teaching
- You will be introduced to flipped classroom as a learning method
- You will also understand how flipped classroom is working in practice
THE USE OF VIDEO IN TEACHING
The use of video is widely spread both in classroom teaching and distance and online teaching. The aims of using video is often to be able to present a more comprehensive way of teaching and a more versatile way for the students to learn a topic by combining curriculum with the world outside the classroom.
The use of video is estimated to be the standard solution for e-learning activities in the future. The role of video will grow due to its ideal purpose for enabling communication, feedback, assignments and portfolios. Video is playing an important role in realizing innovative e-learning and teaching activities. Video is also significant in enabling flipped classroom in teaching.
The use of video has also been proved bridging the gap between theory and practice in teaching. Learning activities involving video can meaningfully guide both the obtaining and the application of knowledge. Video is not working effectively in itself; video is the technology for delivering learning content and must be connected with clear learning objectives.
WHAT DO WE MEAN WITH VIDEO IN THEORY AND PRACTICE?
Video can be defined as digital material within a timeline, where the user can start and stop an automatic flow of visual material. Video material consists of program, movie, or other visual media product featuring moving images, with or without audio, that is recorded and saved digitally. This implies recording, reproducing, or broadcasting of moving visual images.
Here is a short list of different types of video material used for educational purposes:
Screen recording - Screen casting
You are able to create a lecture or a presentation by recording yourself presenting your material (slides) for example in PowerPoint.
You are able to record discussions with your students, your own lectures or interview someone else by using a smartphone or a video camera.
Guides and instructions
You can also use video for creating demos on how to use equipment or for instructional purposes in different subjects, for example in mathematics, biology, arts & crafts.
The impact of video design on learning outcomes
Through livestreaming, you are able to broadcast live video content, and the viewers are able to take part of the content through a computer or a mobile device. The most common way of using video is either as lecture or tutorial. It's essential to keep in mind that the median engagement of the student in watching an educational video is 6 minutes, regardless of the total length of the video. At the same time, it's verified that the students’ experience of a video lecture is very strong. In online lecture the value of seeing the lecturer’s face and the size of the image have influence on learning outcomes. Different features of online design have different impact on learners’ experiences and learning outcomes. Presence or immediacy is important for student engagement and learning outcomes.
Different categories of video lecture
Briefly, flipped classroom can be described as a teaching method, where the teacher produces online lectures (for example video) for the student to take part of before the lecture or class. Class time is instead used for further discussions, deeper reflections on the topic presented, and a variety of different activities.
The flipped classroom is an activating method for more student-oriented learning. The focus of flipped classroom activities is on problem solving, collaboration, project-based learning, presentations and students evaluating their own learning.
What Is Flipped Learning?
Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter.
Flipped classroom as method and practice
To ensure that the students prepare before taking part in class room activities, one way is to accompany the video or written material with different assignments and tests that then are evaluated during the learning process in the class room. Another terminology for the flipped class room method is the inverted classroom as described by Maureen Lage, Glenn Platt, and Michael Treglia as far back as in the year 2000 (for reference see below). Inverted classroom is now seldom used and flipped classroom has become widespread in the educational world.
The main key elements of flipped classroom as a method and practice can be described as:
- The opportunity for students to get exposed to material prior to the lecture in the classroom
- This opportunity then provides an incentive for the students to prepare before class as well as supporting distance learning
- Pre-class assignments supporting better student understanding
- The possibility to focus on higher level cognitive activities in class when students have done the preparation work beforehand.
According to research by John Bransford, Ann Brown, and Rodney Cocking, "...the flipped classroom helps students learn to correct misconceptions and organize their new knowledge such that it is more accessible for future use."
You can read more on the references mentioned here in this article by Cynthia J. Brame at Vanderbilt University
Videos are an excellent tool as part of the flipped classroom method since the students have the possibility to watch and re-watch and rewind the videos how many times they choose to. In combination with some sort of pre-assignment or test you ensure that the students do not come unprepared to class. This way of using both the student´s as the teacher´s time more effectively can also provide the opportunity for more discussions and more deeper discussions in class. Marika Toivola, an expert in flipped learning at the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University of Helsinki has written an excellent blog article on how she is using flipped assessment in her teaching. Marika is also the co-author of the newly published book "Flipped Learning in Finland".
If you want to get a visual overview of the whole flipped classroom model, this infographic although from as early as 2011, proves the proverb " a picture says more than a thousand word" to be correct.
The current development of educational videos
The access to and cost of equipment is no longer a hindrance for producing educational video material. The tools for making quality videos are available in all school settings. Smartphones and tablets are equipped with cameras and editing capabilities. These technologies are comparatively inexpensive and widely accessible. The way the technologies is used with students matters more than various opportunities for multi-modal composing. Video is a composing tool; the teacher’s approach is identified as shaping the purpose. This new literacy stance requires teachers to mediate student composing of meaning.
The content and context of the viewing are both crucial elements for engaging students as active learners. Viewing can involve the high cognitive activity necessary for active learning. Different students will exhibit different response to different methods of teaching. Using video as e-learning approach is efficient in promoting better learning process especially in courses involving skill developments.
Using video-clips for teaching improves students’ comprehension of theoretical contents. Among the potential advantages of video are systematic demonstration of process, attracting and holding class attention, the presentation of scenarios and physical settings, the representation of real cases and complex situations, and the analysis of movement.
The recent introduction of reasonably prices easy-to-use digital video cameras and software enabling processing of the images filmed allows teachers themselves to design, film and assemble their own class material for various teaching purposes.
Advantages for students using video recordings to learn new concepts include multiple viewings of an exemplar and the reuse of videos across multiple settings.
Multiple variations of video-based interventions exist for educators to consider, including video modeling, video prompting, video self-modeling, subject point-of-view video modeling, and computer-based video instruction.
Video modeling is characterized by a video of an adult or peer model illustrating how to perform a skill while delivering explicit directions to the viewer via a transcript across a continuous clip. After watching the video in its entirety, students complete the same skill themselves, in the same manner illustrated on the screen. Video-modeling also provides students with the opportunity to differentiate how they receive instruction while learning and practicing. Students can choose whether to watch a video showing all of the steps needed to solve a problem in its entirety before practicing themselves, or to pause the video after each step and practice in segments (video prompting). Teachers can create video modeling lessons for students to access online to relearn key foundational concepts, providing students with resources they can take with them.
Reading material on using video in teaching
Here you can find some introducing reading material on using video in teaching. As well as some useful links about copyright issues and Creative Commons
TIME TO PLAY - REFLECTIONS
- What are the most interesting aspects on using video in teaching in your opinion?
- What are the biggest challenges for you to start using video in your teaching?
- Which elements in your teaching could be changed into video?
- Open your learning journal and start to write down your own thoughts.
- You can choose to write down, or doodle your reflections. You can create a mind map, draw a sketch or make any other illustration.